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Barley is a kind of whole grain, which was first grown in Ethiopia as well as in some parts of Southeast Asia. Barley considered as a good source of starch, minerals, vitamins, and protein pose it as an ideal food supplement. It is known for its beneficial effects against degenerative diseases including diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and colon inflammation.

Protein in barely includes both essential and non-essential amino acids suggestive of being a good source of protein in food supplements. One of the chief essential amino acids present in barely is lysine, a branched chain amino acid present in muscle building supplements. Barley, as one excellent source of dietary fiber, keeps the intestine in proper health and decreases the chances of colon cancer and hemorrhoids too. β-glucan is responsible for most of the physiological effects in barley, i.e., decrease in serum levels of plasma lipids, LDL cholesterol, and glucose. Vitamins B1, B2, B3 and vitamin E are the major vitamins recorded in barely. Barley grain is considered as a good source of K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn with quantitative differences in context to variety type and environmental conditions. Fatty acids in barley kernel include linoleic acid, palmitic, oleic, and linolenic acid. Barley encompasses several bioactive compounds including phenolic acids and ferulic acid. Anticancer and antioxidant activities of barley could be attributed to phenolic compounds.

Barley flour can easily be incorporated into wheat-based products, including bread, cakes, cookies, noodles and extruded snack foods. Several investigations have focused on the proportion of barley flour that can be blended with wheat flour to produce acceptable breads. These studies have established a clear correlation between an increase in barley flour content and decreases in dough gas retention and specific bread-loaf volume. On the other hand, the incorporation of barley flour into wheat dough has been shown to have anti-staling effects on bread crumb texture.